TERADA FOR ELDERS RELIEF AND DEVELOPMENT ASSOCIATION

MAY 2002 ADDIS ABEBA

Contact: Dawit Solomon at Cornell: E-mail: ds278@cornell.edu

 INTRODUCTION

The rapid growth in the number of older people is creating an unprecedented global demographic revolution. During this century, improvements in hygiene and water supply and control of infectious diseases have reduced the risks of premature death. As a consequence, the proportion of the world's population over 60 years is increasing more rapidly than any previous era.

This increase in the number and proportion of older people is predictable. For the first time in history, the majority of those who have survived childhood in all countries, including Ethiopia, can expect live past 50 years of age.

The myth that older people do not exist in the underdeveloped world because life expectancy is low is contradicted by the statistics. Even the world poorest countries, those who survive the disease of infancy and childhood have a very good chance of living to be grandparents. This means that the numbers of older people in developing countries will more than double over the next quarter, reaching 850 million by 2025-12 percent of their total population.

The growth in life expectancy offers new opportunities, but it also creates challenges for the future. In the underdeveloped world, including Ethiopia, populations are aging at an unprecedented speed while most of their people still live in poverty. The relative development of medical technology that allows people to live longer has overtaken the achievement of economic prosperity. As a result too many people still spend their later year in poverty, living in the margin of their society.

At present, older people receive a fraction of the resources they need, while their continuing contribution to society is unrecognized. Discrimination, exclusion, and even persecution or violence cast a shadow over the later years of many older people. Reducing vulnerability and promoting inclusion is not so much about creating special services for older people but rather ensuring that they have equal access to mainstream services along with other vulnerable groups.

Lack of material means is not the only problem of poverty. Another consequence is the inability to participate effectively in economic, social and political life. Older people living in poverty find themselves socially excluded and isolated from decision-making process. This affects not only their income and wealth but also contributes to poor housing, ill health and personal insecurity.

In many societies older people had leadership role such as conflict resolution, cultural, religious and health education. While these roles still exist, they have been eroded by the changing structure of the family and the emergence of a dominant culture, which gives higher status to literacy and formal education.

Efforts to understand poverty have dominated much of the debate on development over recent years but the poverty experienced by the majority of older people has been largely ignored. We have witnessed that in many development initiatives such as food security programs, credit schemes or literacy programs, program managers appear to believe that older people are unable to participate and have no productive role, or are merely passive recipients of support.

Any credible anti-poverty strategy must seek ways to allow older people to live independently and contribute to their families and communities, and to support frail older people living in poverty.

Anti-poverty strategies will have more chance of success if older people play a major part in identifying the problems as well as the solutions.

Older people are not passive and they continue to contribute to their families and communities, but their capacities to for productivity is also overlooked. The work contributed by older people is severely undervalued, even by the older people by themselves.

Older people engage in a variety of occupations, including farming, hand crafting and trading. Older family members are also active, though often unacknowledged, participants in the household economy. They look after children, do domestic work and make cash or in kind contribution. By maintaining their own livelihood where possible, we strongly believe that older people could contribute to the well being of the household and family. But studies have revealed that there are some factors that reduce these assets and limit the capacity of older people to provide opportunities for themselves. These include diminished physical strength, poor health, low status, lack of education and training opportunities, landlessness, absence of limited family or community support and lack of capital.

BACKGROUND

The existence of large population of older people is undoubtedly becoming a major issue for governments, international organizations, non-governmental organizations (NGOs), and the communities. But at present, older people still remain a neglected group, largely invisible to those who promote economic development, health care and education. Since the birth rates currently experienced in many countries are now increasing, young people remain the focus of planners' attention.

The rapid, large scale and widespread growth in the number of older people has never been seen in the history of the planet. In 1984 the total population of Ethiopia was estimated to be 42 million and by the year 1995 the number increased to 60 million. It is projected that by the year 2020 the total population will reach 138 million.

The proportion of the population over 60 year is also increasing more rapidly than in any previous era. In 1984 there were about 2.7 million people over 60 throughout Ethiopia. In the year 2000 there were about 3.2 million and by 2020 there will be about 5.3 million, a double increase with in a span of 40 years.

For the last five decades, economic growth and increased productivity have been the goal of development policy. Older people, on the other hand, are usually thought of as economically dependant and passive. As a result, they have been treated at best as irrelevant to development, at worst, as hampering the prospects for prosperity. Being able-bodied has come to be equated with normality, and since older people cannot conform to this ideal, they are viewed in negative terms. But if aging is to be a positive experience there must be improvements in the quality of life for older people. To ignore their need is both to deny their rights and to waste the fund of skills and experience that they represent.

Older people are consistently among the poorest in all societies, and material security is therefore one of the greatest preoccupation of old age. Many experience the same lack of physical necessities, assets and income felt by other poor people, but without the resources which younger, fitter, and more active adults can use to compensate.

It is under this grim situation that Terada for Elders Relief and Development Association (TERADA) is established by a group of volunteer Ethiopians who witnessed the bad plight of older people living in rural and urban areas of the country. Terada for Elders Relief and Development Association (TERADA) is an indigenous non-governmental and non-profit making organization established to work for the cause and care of disadvantaged older people to improve the quality of their life.

TERADA is registered and authorized to operate as a local NGO by the Federal Ministry of Justice (Certificate of Registration Number 762) and entered operational agreement with the Federal Disaster Prevention and Preparedness Commission (DPPC) on April 2002.

VISION

TERADA's vision is to strive to be strong development organization in the fight against POVERTY, the enemy of older people independence.

MISSION

The mission of the association is to work for the cause and care of disadvantaged older persons to improve the quality of their life.

VALUES

Team spirit, Accountability, Transparency, Equity, Gender equality, Efficiency, Credibility, Give respect, Work for and with people are the values of the association.

OBJECTIVE

Rehabilitate the moral & psychological make-up and dignity of the elders to ensure their independence and contribution to in the socio-economic development process of the country

PREVIOUS PERFORMANCES

Before the establishment of TERADA, a group of volunteer individuals joined and formed an informal association. Then, these volunteers took up the challenges, bring forth the major problems concerning the elders and started to raise funds by contributing from their personal income. The primary objective of this relationship was to build their capacity to fight the enemy of older people independence i.e., poverty. Towards this end, these volunteers implemented different support activities that have addressed many of the needs of the disadvantaged old people living in and around today's proposed project area.

For the last four and half years this informal association has performed the following major activities:

  1. Provision of basic necessities
  2. Construction of houses, kitchen,
  3. Develop spring

More than 150000 ETB was raised and used for the implementation of the above-mentioned activities. By doing so, it was able to serve and benefit old people. Without these supports the life of these people would have been very miserable beyond our imagination.

 

Although the above mentioned efforts were exerted by these individuals to alleviate the problems of the elders, the staggering cash flow, the complexity & magnitude of problems faced by old people in the areas and above all the absence of organization that could plan, implement and follow up activities full time, has seriously affected the planned support provision activities.

 

OPERATIONAL AREAS

TERADA'S operational areas will be selected weredas and kebeles in the Amhara National Regional State and Addis Abeba City Administration. Ankober, Basonawerana and Merhabete weredas of North Shewa zone of Amhara region are first priority of intervention.

MAJOR INTERVENTIONS/ACTIVITIES

As it is known underdevelopment and the effects of natural disasters compounded by man made calamities have occasioned and accentuated hardship to the people of Ethiopia in general and older people in particular. To seek short-term relief and long-term solutions to these problems, it is necessary to execute activities that are coordinated in such a way as to ensure maximum benefit for the disadvantaged older people. To this end, all project will be designed to help eliminate pervasive food, cloth, shelter, health care and income insecurity, the causes of vulnerability, experienced by older people in TERADA's proposed operational areas.

Interventions described below (but not limited to) were conceived to relieve or eliminate significant factors contributing to significant sources of vulnerability.

1. Development Activities

           

       Major Intervention areas under development activities will be:       

v    Employment & Income Generation Schemes

o      Family support

o      Credit and Saving

o      Introduction of appropriate technology that ease the burden of elders

 

       Labor saving (such as flour mill)

       Fuel saving

 

v    Advocacy & Research activities

 

o      Awareness creation on the existing socio-economic profile of the elders

 

       Organization of workshops, seminars and meetings to key decision makers and social groups (such as youths at school, women)

 

o      Awareness creation on the role of elders on

 

       The prevention of HIV/AIDS

       Transfer of social norms, culture, history etc.

       Conflict resolution

 

o      Advocacy on the limitation of existing development interventions that ignored the need and concern of the elders (Both in Rural & Urban areas)

 

       Market facilities

       Infrastructure works (road traffics)

       Priority in any service giving organizations

       Standardization (all facilities should capture/adopt the need/problems of elders)

 

v    Net-working with other organizations who are working with elders and open Dialogue with policy makers & other NGOs

 

2. Relief & Rehabilitation

 

        Major Intervention areas under Relief & Rehabilitation activities will be:

 

v    Provision of Basic Necessities to Vulnerable Group

 

o      Food ration

o      Shelter

o      Clothing

o      Health

o      Water Supply

 

 

PROGRAMME PRINCIPLES

 

The following principle will characterize TERADA's work in each program domain:

 

Older People Centeredness:

TERADA's programme/project planning, design and implementation should ensure improvements in the quality of the life of elderly.

    

Learning:

TERADA will promote learning for itself, its partners and the community in order to    achieve its mission.

 

Integration:

TERADA's program/project components will reinforce one another to improve the quality of the life of old people.

 

Environmental Sustainability:

TERADA will promote equitable and sustainable access to and use of natural resources by people.

 

TERADA will seek to strengthen the long-term capability of all community members to manage matters that affect the well being of their old people.

 

Cooperation:

TERADA will work through communities and with community organizations, government bodies, NGOs and others based on mutual respect, with specific rights and obligations for all parties.

 

 

SUSTAINABILITY STRATEGY

 

The magnitude of the problems as noted and an emphasis on integrated activities make the issue of sustainability of particular concern. 

TERADA considers the following strategies, as critical, if the impacts of the intended program/project to be sustained.

 

       An effective partnering with government, NGO and Community Based Organization (CBO) with greater emphasis on capacity building, training, and empowerment.  Efforts will be made to change from rhetoric to reality the idea that partners, including community members, must be involved in each step of the project cycle.  TERADA  will program additional time at project initiation to allow a more thorough dialogue and team planning with all partners.

 

       In addition, TERADA is committed to greater involvement of local institutions in project activities and will do its best to establish management capability.

 

       Within the different intervention areas communities will be given opportunities to select appropriate technologies that they can manage and own in order to ensure, to the extent possible,sustainability.

 

       TERADA proposes an equitable balance when addressing short- and long-term needs.  If successful, communities will have a healthier and better nourished population with reduced vulnerability to shock, as well as structures and systems to allow the community to progress economically.

 

       TERADA will contribute to advocacy initiatives that would benefit the elderlies. It  will also work closely with government, donor, NGO and community partners to implement a successful advocacy strategy.

 

       From project inception, TERADA will work with communities to develop phase-out strategies.  As soon as specific activities are completed, they would be handed over to appropriate government and community entities.  In this way all players would be fully aware that TERADA will only be present for a specific period of time and it would facilitate and promote community control throughout the project period and beyond.

 

 

Organization & Management

 

TERADA's supreme organ is the General Assembly. The Board of Directors, elected by the General Assembly, is responsible for the overall policies and directions of the organization. The General Manager, assigned by the boars of Directors, is the executive body and responsible for the overall management of the organization.

 

Project Organization:

 

To implement the planned project, organization is an essential aspect. It is necessary that all human resources be well organized in order to achieve the best results. Therefore the project will have its own organization structure that will indicate clearly the line of authority in the management structure and defined responsibility for every job. Since project organization doesn't mean only placing people in administrative structure, the following basic principles of project organization will be considered:

 

1.     All activities and tasks will be distributed to the people involved

 

2.     Each person will know what to do in terms of quality and quantity so that the work they do will    be evaluated according to accomplishment of their task

 

3.      Each person will have the resources available to accomplish his/her tasks

 

Project Management:

 

The most important input in a project is human resources because only human being has the capacity to transform all the other inputs in to the desired outputs. How this transformation is done depends on the management, which is defined as the capacity of a person or a group to lead the rest of the people involved in the project in order to achieve the stated goal.

 

Recruitment/Staffing & Management of personnel

 

As has been indicated above the most important input/resource in a project is the people working in it. The organization will have both core and support staff during its lifetime. TERADA's Administration will prepare a job description for each type of work in order to define clearly the criteria for selecting the candidates. Then recruitment will be done based on the TERADA's administration manual in a fair and understandable way for all people involved. The management of the personnel will also be base on TERADA's rule concerning salaries, benefits, promotions penalties etc.

To motivate all the people involved in the project so that they use their capacity, creativity, intelligence, knowledge, experience and other personal characteristics to achieve the desired outputs and objectives of the project, human resource development program will be part of the implementation. As an important implementation strategy in improving operation performance, crucial factors such as competence, motivation and opportunity will be considered in planning human resource development. During the project period staff training and workshop will be used as one measure for human resource development program.

 

Procurement and Management of Inputs

 

Procurement of the necessary inputs will be done according to the procedures established in TERADA's procurement manual/guideline. All procurement will follow clear, written and fair procedures. As much as possible the process of procurement will begin in time to get the inputs when required and for a convenient price.

 

Management of Accounting & Finance

 

It is a very critical and sensitive matter in the project implementation. All in coming and out going funds of the project will be recorded and clearly explained when necessary. In order to be informed of the cost level of the project and then have an idea of the efficiency of the operations (both by TERADA and the Donor) periodically, the project will have an accounting system, which provides accurate cost information.


Terada for Elders Relief and Development Association

(TERADA)

  

"TerAda" is an amharic word meaning

UNITE TOGETHER & HELP ONE AN OTHER

Address

( Off.+ (251-1) 533470/533317

Fax + (251-1) 519802

P.O.Box 5375, Addis Abeba, Ethiopia

Africa Avenue (Bole Road)

Wereda 18 Kebele 27

House Number (5th Floor) 987/23

DEDICATED TO REDUCING THE POVERTY AND NEGGLECT OF THE AGED IN THEIR TWILIGHT YEARS!!!

 
GENERAL

 

The existence of large population of older people is undoubtedly becoming a major issue for governments, international organizations, non-governmental organizations (NGOs), and the communities. But at present, older people still remain a neglected group, largely invisible to those who promote economic development, health care and education. Since the birth rates currently experienced in many countries are now increasing, young people remain the focus of planners' attention.

 

Although the responsibility for providing assistance to people facing different socio-economic problems is vested on the government, it accepts its limitations in terms of financial and human resources and encourage non-governmental organizations to supplement its development and relief efforts. There is currently a considerable contribution of such agencies in supplementing the government's effort.

 

ESTABLISHMENT

 

It is with this general principle that Terada for Elders Relief and Development Association (TERADA) is established by a group of volunteer Ethiopians who witnessed the bad plight of older people living in rural and urban areas of the country.

 

Terada for Elders Relief and Development Association (TERADA) is an indigenous non-governmental and non-profit making organization established to work for the cause and care of disadvantaged older people to improve the quality of their life.

 

TERADA is registered and authorized to operate as a local NGO by the Federal Ministry of Justice (Certificate of Registration Number 762) and entered operational agreement with the Federal Disaster Prevention and Preparedness Commission (DPPC) on April 2002.

 

VISION

 

TERADA's vision is to strive to be strong development organization in the fight against poverty, the enemy of older people independence.

 

MISSION

 

The mission of the association is to work for the cause and care of disadvantaged older persons to improve the quality of their life.

 

VALUES

 

Team spirit, Accountability, Transparency, Equity, Gender equality, Efficiency, Credibility, Give respect, Work for and with people are the values of the association.

 

 

OBJECTIVE

 

Rehabilitate the moral & psychological make-up and dignity of the elders to ensure their independence and contribution to in the socio-economic development process of the country

 

MAJOR ACTIVITIES

 

v    Relief & Rehabilitation

      *        Provision of Basic Necessities to Vulnerable Groups

       Food ration

       Shelter

       Clothing

       Health

       Water Supply

      *         Development Activities

       Employment & Income Generation Schemes

        Family support

        Institutionalization (peer group formation) or Institutional support

        Introduction of appropriate technology that ease the burden of elders

        Labor saving (such as flour mill)

       Fuel saving

 

v    Advocacy & Research activities

*        Awareness creation on the existing socio-economic profile of the elders

       Organization of workshops, seminars and meetings to key decision makers and social groups (such as youths at school, women)

*        Awareness creation on the role of elders on

       The prevention of HIV/AIDS

       Transfer of social norms, culture, history etc.

       Conflict resolution

*        Net-working with other organizations who are working with elders

       Use of Mass media

       Advocacy on the limitation of existing development interventions that ignored the need and concern of the elders (Urban areas)

        Market facilities

        Infrastructure works (road traffics)

        Priority in any service giving organizations

        Standardization (all facilities should capture/adopt the need/problems of elders)

        Open Dialogue with policy makers & other NGOs on the need/problems of elders

Terada 01_ shows water reservoir constructed in the vicinity of the old people. We have developed one spring that was located far from their village and brought it nearer through pipe to this reservoir. Now they did not travel long distance to fetch water for their daily use.

 

Terada 02 & 03_Kitchen and Chimney. As you can see from the picture, the kitchen is built in standing position. The construction of this kitchen with the chimney greatly help to let the bloody smoke outside without creating much irritation to the already impaired eyes and conserve the labour of the physically frail and weak oldies.

The other photos are believed to represent the situation in which our target people are living. The dilapidated houses, their household belongings and their physical condition can be seen easily.

Terada 04_ shows an old woman of about 75 years old. She is widow and has no one around her to help at this stage. If you received the photo clearly, you can see her frail body, the bed on which she spent almost all days and nights, the skin of an ox ('Angarre') she used as mattress and bed cover and her whole 'belongings' used to sustain her life. Now, she is living with other weak and sick old people in the house constructed by Terada.

 

Terada 05_ This is an old man in front of his ''house'', which is made out of maize stalk (''Yebekolo Ageda''). You can imagine how an old man like him that has the only clothes he wears, could survive the long rainy and cold season in this house.

Terada 06_ These are some of the target people currently under Terada's mercy. To the left of the photo you can see a building with iron rail. The building is constructed to serve as a living quarter for these people. They are now living in this house. The kitchen and the chimney described above are part of this building.